What is kulning?

Kulning or herding calls is a special high-pitched vocal technique, a vocal means of expression, mainly used by women in the grazing pastures in Scandinavia.
It has been used at least since the Middle Ages and functions primarily as a means of communication between the shepherdess and the animal and can be heard many miles away. 
Today kulning – herding calls are used in forms and surroundings different from its origin:
In concerts, as a vocal technique used for instance in new compositions, as a pedagogical tool, and therefore it still lives even though the grazing pastures are not so common any longer.